Difference Between Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difference Between Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Reliability and validity are absolute requirements that must be met in using this approach because these two elements will determine the quality of the results of the study. Furthermore, quantitative research requires the existence of a hypothesis and testing.
Quantitative approaches are also methods that work with numbers, whose data are numbers (scores, ranks, or frequencies), which are analyzed using statistics to answer specific research hypotheses, and to predict that certain variables affect other variables (Cresswell in Alsa A., 2003).
The qualitative method is influenced by Weberian's naturalistic-interpretative paradigm, the post-positivistic perspective of critical theory groups and post-modernism as developed by Baudrillard, Lyotard, and Derrida (Cresswell in Somantri G. R., 2005).
A qualitative approach is used when researchers have the ability and experience in researching because qualitative research seeks to construct reality and understand its meaning. Thus, qualitative research usually pays close attention to process, events and authenticity. Qualitative approaches can provide more complex details about phenomena that are difficult to express by quantitative approaches.

The Difference Between Quantitative and Qualitative Methods From the Aspect of Paradigm
Quantitative approaches and qualitative approaches have differences in research applications. Fry distinguishes in more detailed comparisons between the paradigms of qualitative and quantitative approaches, as can be seen in the following Table 1.1 (Purbayu Budi Santosa).

Comparison of qualitative and qualitative paradigms
Qualitative Paradigm Quantitative Paradidma
Suggests the use of qualitative methods Encourage the use of quantitative methods
Phenomelogism and verstehen are associated with understanding human behavior from the frame of reference of the actors themselves. Logic of positivism: "Seeing facts or casual social phenomena by looking a little for the subjective statements of individuals"
Uncontrolled and naturalistic observation Measurement controlled and prominent
Subjective Objective
Close to data: an "insider" perspective Far from the data: data is an "outsider" perspective
Grounded, discounted, exploratory, expansionist, descriptive, and inductive orientation Not grounded, verification verification, confirmation, reductionist, inferential and deductive-hypothetical orientation
Process orientation Result orientation
Valid: "real," rich, and "deep" data Reliability: data can be replicated and "hard"
Cannot be generalized: single case study Can be generalized: multi-case study

Holistic Particularistik
Dynamic reality assumptions Realistic assumptions are stable
Differences in Quantitative and Qualitative Methods from a Basic Perspective
Williams put forward five basic views on the differences in quantitative and qualitative methods, namely (Musianto L.S., 2002):
On the basis of the view of the nature of reality, the quantitative approach sees reality as single, concrete, observable, and can be fragmented. Instead the qualitative approach looks at multiple realities (compound), the results of construction in a holistic sense.

On the basis of the view of the interaction between the researcher and the object of his research, the quantitative approach sees as independent, dualistic and even mechanistic. On the other hand, the qualitative approach is seen as an interactive, inseparable and even participatory process.
On the basis of the view of generalist posibility, the quantitative approach is free from context and time ties (nomothetic statements), while the qualitative approach is bound from context and time ties (idiographic statements).